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Fuquanshan site

Source:http://www.flychinatravel.com Clicks:Date:2019-11-09 17:04

 

福泉山遗址

 

 

Fuquanshan site, once known as Fu Chuanshan, also known as Xue daoshan, is located in the west side of Chonggu Town, Qingpu District, Shanghai. After several excavations, 154 tombs of song, Tang, Han, Warring States, Liangzhu culture, Songze culture, altars of Liangzhu Culture and residential sites of Songze culture have been cleared up, among which the discovery of Gaotai cemetery of Liangzhu culture is the most important. Fuquanshan ancient cultural site still completely preserves the cultural superposition remains of yellow brown, gray brown, gray blue, blue gray, loess and other five colored soil layers, which are known by archaeologists as "historical chronology of ancient Shanghai" and "civil pyramid of China". On June 25, 2001, it was announced by the State Council as the national key cultural relics protection unit, the only national cultural relics protection unit in Qingpu District.
 
The geographical location of fuquanshan site in Chinese is located in Qingpu District, Shanghai. The fifth batch of national key cultural relics protection units are approved by No.25 document of the State Council. The ancient name of fuchuanshan is approved by No.37 document of the State Council
 
Site survey
 
Fuquan mountain is an irregular rectangle, 94 meters long from east to west, 84 meters wide from north to South and 7.5 meters high. The cultural relics of various periods with a history of 6000-7000 years have been completely preserved, including the remains of Songze culture, Liangzhu culture, Majiabang culture of the Neolithic age, and the remains of the Warring States period, which are known by archaeologists as "the civil engineering pyramid of China", "the historical chronology of ancient Shanghai" and "the birthplace of Shanghai".
 
Fuquanshan site is a typical mound site in Taihu Lake area, covering an area of 7000 square meters. The well preserved relationship between Songze culture and Liangzhu culture is of great value to the study of Neolithic culture in the southEast Coastal area of China. A number of rare fine works of Neolithic pottery and jade were unearthed, such as Cong shaped bracelet with human and animal patterns, black pottery pot with broad handle, Lou Kong tripod, etc., which are important physical examples to explore the social nature of Liangzhu Culture and the origin of ancient Chinese civilization. Fuquanshan ancient cultural site still completely preserves the cultural superposition remains of yellow brown, gray brown, gray blue, blue gray, loess and other five colored soil layers, which are known by archaeologists as "historical chronology of ancient Shanghai" and "civil pyramid of China".
 
Ancient tomb of man sacrificed
 
No. 139 tomb in Liangzhu culture period of Fuquan mountain, which was excavated and identified by archaeologists, belongs to a tomb of martyrdom. The owner of the tomb is an adult male. He is buried with his back up and straight legs. There are a lot of rich funeral objects. On the northeast corner of the tomb was another human bone, which was identified as a young woman. She bent her limbs on one side, and her upper and lower limbs were bent apart, like kneeling and falling down, with her head toward the northwest. There is a jade bead on the head, a jade tube on the forehead, a jade ring on the neck, a small jade pendant on the upper limb, a jade tube on the left and right lower limb bones, and a large pottery jar for sacrifice behind the skeleton. It can be seen that the former is a nobleman of high status, while the latter is of low status. It is obvious that the former is a sacrificial animal and related to sacrifice.
 
Cultural soil layer
 
Archaeologists also found a wall with colors of various cultural soil layers in a 5.3-meter-high pit in the north of Fuquan, Shanxi Province. It is like a historical chronology from primitive society to slave society and feudal society since the Neolithic period. The bottom layer is the Majiabang culture layer, the middle black layer is the Songze culture layer, and the upper gray soil is the early Liangzhu culture The yellow brown soil near the ground is the later Liangzhu culture layer.  Such a complete accumulation of ancient cultural soil layer is a rare stratigraphic legacy of field archaeology, which is of great significance to the study of ancient social morphology and cultural outlook in Shanghai. It also proves that the Chongqing Guyuan area has been built as early as 6000 years ago, and our ancestors have worked and lived near Fuquan mountain, and their industriousness and wisdom have improved and enriched their Life. It can be seen that the ancient Shanghainese, Fuquan mountain people, made great contributions to the ancient culture of Shanghai through their hard life.
 
Excavation process
 
At the end of May, 1951, Shen Shiming, a culture and Education Department of Songjiang special office, came to investigate the cultural relics of the county. He found hard printed pottery and primitive porcelain pieces around Chonggu Fuquan mountain.
 
In 1959, the Municipal Management Association sent Huang xuanpei, sun Weichang, Yang Hui, etc. to Qingpu Fuquan mountain and other 15 places for the general survey of cultural relics and historic sites. Stone knives, stone axes and pottery chips were successively found in the ditches around the mountain.
 
In the autumn of 1962, after archaeological reexamination, the municipal cultural administration and the County Museum affirmed the ancient cultural sites such as Fuquan mountain and luotuodun.
 
In 1977, when teachers and students of Chonggu middle school worked in the field beside Fuquan mountain, they found Songze cultural pottery. On December 7 of that year, Shanghai Municipal People's government listed the ancient cultural relics of Fuquan mountain as the third batch of cultural relics protection units in Shanghai.
 
From November 2 to December 1, 1979, Shanghai Municipal Commission of culture and management tried to dig 15 deep ditches in the farmland around Fuquan mountain, covering an area of 130 square meters. Most of the unearthed cultural relics were from Shang and Zhou Dynasties to Liangzhu, Songze and Majiabang cultures;
 
In August 1982, after the discovery of stone tools and jade walls in Fuquan mountain, Chonggu, the city's cultural and Administrative Commission went to Fuquan mountain to conduct a pilot excavation from September 6, 13 to December 18, opening 7 5x7 meters of exploration square and 225 square meters of open surface;
 
From December 1, 1983 to January 24, 1984, the ancient Department of the Municipal Culture and management conference explored 20 square meters in Fuquan mountain, covering an area of 1000 square meters. 16 tombs of Songze culture, 10 tombs of Liangzhu culture, 3 tombs of the Warring States period, 46 tombs of the Western Han Dynasty were excavated for the second time. More than 1000 pieces of jade, stone, pottery and bone ware were unearthed;

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